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Yu.S. Kamalov



Union in Defense of the Aral Sea and Amudarya River. Karakalpak Branch of the Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences. Nukus

A return to the laws of capitalism in economics was inevitable for former socialist countries. A private interest, a search for personal profit can not be excluded or forced by command or even by fear. However, at present in the field of natural resource use there is no profit in restoring resources, and landscapes for all. There is no incentive to competently, harmlessly use natural resources. This is common to almost all states of the world; everywhere Nature and natural resources are treated like socialized property,and exploitied accordingly. Throughout the world, the interactions of society and Nature are regulated by administrative bodies. The Nature is not received as a subject of a free market. The institutions that were created for Nature defence are operating as supervise ones undertaking punitive measures only. It is a clear GLOBAL SOCIALISM based on still insurmountable anthropocentrism. Long ago the Nature was already involved in economics without any permission.

The intensified "greens" movement allows to hope that somewhere on the Earth the bursting will happen and THE TRANSITION TO CAPITALISATION OF RELATIONS WITH NATURE will begin. It is supposed the primery avowal the economic rights of Nature. Attached to this we must understand that Nature is not abstract concept but a concrete object of Nature, which may be singled out as a whole one by present knowledge. For example, the concrete river with all it tributaries, all its basin may be singled out as a whole one. In appendix 1 as a possible variant for Aral Sea basin is given an example.

The new form of property - PROPERTY OF NATURE is proposed to be fixed.

To defend the Nature interests in the society a new Structure must be created, which one will be like executive director who will be the spokesman of the natural object. This structure will have possibility to manage a part of natural resource with profit for an object and for its self surviving. The new Structure is AN EQUAL RIGHT ECONOMIC PARTNER for all tha subjects of a free market. It means, first of all, the collect of payment for concrete natural resource. The Structure spends this money to restore of the resource only. This is general principle of the capitalism when a major part of money is spended to restore expenditures.

Reimbursement of money to Nature will take place by different ways at the same time. One of them is a direct restoration of resource, for example fish, wild animals, forests etc. The next way is the crediting of a new technology to economize the nature resource. For example, it is crediting of drop irrigation at the case of water. Then it is creating of unaffected conditions for decreasing of the resource losses. For example it is forest planting along rivers to increase water collection, care of wild anymals land etc. New Structure will do all of this. By this Structure the Natural object will become afree market subject. At the same time it is necessary to have in view that Structure officers` salary will depend on ecological conditions of the object. For this ECOLOGICAL KEY PARAMETER of the ecosistem is being looked for. For example for the Aral Sea it is the quality and quantity of water getting to the Aral.

Banks appraise the key parameter through independent sources and direct the part of receive money which was determined before to the salary. For Structure fight for Nature interestes in the society BOTH SELLING OF NATURAL RESOURCE AND KEEPING OF BALANCE IN THE ECOSISTEM MUST BE PROFITABLE (look at appendix1).

In agriculture there is an element of capitalisation of relation with soil. A certain part of means which are receiving from selling the crop is turned to restore soiles. But here just one of the earth propeties is restored, which was artificially supported by man. In the case of unit object such as a river (river basin), a forest, a sea, an ocean, a landscape difficulties arise which relate to dividing of these objects between several owners and sometimes between several states. And this division does not reflect an object unity, does not include in itself whole bioecocenose as a unit. So we face another problem, THE PROBLEM OF STATE ADMINISTRATIV BORDERS.

All "greens" understand that formed state administrative borders are one of the most serious problems in solving ecological tasks. Destroying of them is a deal of a far future, it is not real for many regions on the Earth. However, in some countries where a river, for example, is situated inside of a state as a whole, it is quite possible to inculcate new form of property, fast organising of proposed structures. A state occupying a whole island would be ideal place for this one.

Transition reconstraction period of economics in the CIS is an opportunity to adopt capitalisation in relation with Nature, but government spheres are not ready to accept too new ideas. In fact, to give to a new structure even only the part of their territoreis is impossible for young sovereigns. Therefore it is easier to begin installation in a more or less developed capitalist country, much better in an island (Australia, New Zealand, Japan...). However in CIS also fast introduction of a new structureis quite possible in an ecological catastrophic regions. Extreme aggravation of ecological will give impetus to acceptance of fast non-standard decisions.

The above described method of capitalisation of relations with Nature may be called "A METHOD OF CLOSING OF COMMODITY-MONEY FLOW" (compare Marx`s "commodity-money-commodity"). At ones` reverse relation must be observed: the flow must grow till ceratin level, then decrease. That is economic regulation. Such method is feasible one and for solving of social problems, for example at struggle against human defects. We will consider, for example, smoking and excessive alcohol using as the defect. We will think that reason of this defect is low culture of people. According to the method of closing, we will direct all takings which were recieved from selling of alcohol and tobacco, to rise the culture (admitted that: sport, education, art, medical prophilactics etc). The flow must gradually come down and stabilise on certain level. At present, althought such closings very likely take place, it is impossible to identify them and so to estimate their real influence on solving some problem. The need of VISIBILATION OF FLOW is arising. A profit from celling of alcohol and tobacco must be known for all concerned parties and sent to mentioned above circle ( in the countres here is no state monopoly - all of taxes got from producers, sellers). In this case the reverse relation must be negative one. The culture growth will lead to decrease of alcohol and tobacco using (why don`t try with narcotic?). Flow will stabilised on the certain level and the question is that the level would be minimum one. This task is quite practicable for any states and has close relation with Nature conservation problems.